Tag Archives: south africa

The Michael Pollan of Tourism

I had a meeting today with someone from an organization lobbying for ‘fair trade tourism’. They’re trying to promote hotels, tours and activities that don’t exploit the societies in which they take place, and lead to sustainable employment and development for nearby communities.

As we were talking, I kept thinking of the blurb I saw last night asking why there isn’t a Michael Pollan for clothing:

Fashion has parallels to food: most clothing is too cheap, that cheapness has tragic costs, clothing is an agricultural product, and we consume too much of it. Affordable designer collaborations are like the rise of the home gourmet, but now we should be ready for responsibility beyond taste and design. I’m looking for the textile version of Food Rules, some aphoristic guidelines that won’t make me feel evil when buying a shirt.

Tourism is another black hole for consumers. We all want to how our kiwis were grown, who picked them and what color the 747 was that flew them here.  We have ready access to the calories, fat and sugars in everything we buy.

In tourism, though, the only thing you know about your hotel is what it costs and where it is. You don’t know the wages of the people who work there or where they’re from. Or how the beachfront your hotel is sitting on was acquired. Or how much water the hotel takes from the local watershed. Or how many locals vs expats there in mangement.

I’m in Johannesburg this week, and most of the staff here are from Zimbabwe. I have no idea if it’s the case at this particular hotel, but I know the influx of something like 2 million Zimbabweans to South Africa in the last 10 years have pushed down wages and working conditions in hotels. The minimum wage for hospitality staff here is about $10 a day.

I’m amazed at the extent to which the sustainable procurement movement has skipped the tourism sector. In the four years I’ve worked for the Danish government, we’ve switched to recycled paper in the copier, fair trade coffee in the percolator and organic milk in the fridge. You always hear about private sector firms taking steps like switching their light bulbs, making everyone turn off their computers at night, etc. Consumers and workers accept that their purchasing decisions have social and environmental impacts, and they pressure organizations that purchase on their behalf to do so sustainably.

Yet the places we stay on business seem curiously immune to this trend. Considering I’m here on Official Bidness (for a human rights organization, no less), I think it’s reasonable to expect that I’d be staying somewhere that pays its staff a living wage.  Yet I have no information about this place beyond its star rating and buffet menu.

I’m sure if we got more transparency in tourism, we wouldn’t like what we saw. But 10 years ago, you could have said that about clothing. It’s about time we take the principles we use to decide what we eat and what we wear and apply them to where we sleep.


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South Africa as Super-America

I’ve sort of come to think of South Africa as super-America. All of the problems the states suffers from are here, but turned up to 11. We’ve got income inequality, they’ve got extreme income inequality. We’ve got historical racism, they’ve got profound historical racism. We’ve got high crime, they’ve got bonkers high crime. There’s a lot both countries could learn from each other.

Americans, for example, tend not to see the structural components of racism. It’s easy for us to say ‘that black dude is poor because he didn’t finish high school, go to college and get a job. It’s his fault.’

It’s a lot harder for an American to say that about a black South African, whose family was so profoundly disadvantaged by Apartheid (dude, your race was part of your social security number) that he can’t be expected to make up the gap in one generation.

The situation is actually the same in America, we just don’t see it because the magnitude isn’t as profound. Just as black South Africans weren’t instantly transported out of the townships when Apartheid ended, black Americans weren’t magically moved to Connecticut when segregation ended.

We have more time between us and segregation than South Africa does, but that doesn’t mean we’re not still swimming in its wake.

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Stray Thoughts on South Africa


I’ve been in Cape Town, Johannesburg and Pretoria for work this week. I’m pretty much here to talk to people and organizations about human rights in South Africa, and my overall impression is that this country is really hard.

I don’t mean that it’s callous (though sometimes it is), or inaccessible (though sometimes it is), but just that it’s really difficult. At every level and on every issue, it’s really tough to find a constructive or feasible—forget about ‘right’—way to do things. Race, gender, economics, work, culture: It’s all threaded with a history and a context that make it difficult to talk about and even more difficult to reconcile.

Obviously, it’s a totally fascinating place, and every conversation with someone who grew up here teaches you something you didn’t know. It’s my first trip to Africa, and I keep coming to little mini-piphanies every time I chat with someone longer than 10 minutes.

Given the high crime rate, public space is conceived very differently than it is in Europe or America. For us, being in public is showing off, and interacting with your environment.

Here, all the communication is one-way. Walking from your parking spot to a bar, you’re behind enemy lines.

Being in public means looking over your shoulder, knowing who’s around you and being ready to act in extreme ways at any moment.

‘Be aware of your surroundings,’ my Serbian cabdriver told me as he drove me home at 2 am in Cape Town.

‘Everyone says that,’ I said. ‘But what are you supposed to do if you see something sketchy, or a potential thief approaches you?’

‘You must act,’ he said.

‘What, kick them in the nuts and run away?’ I said.

‘No,’ he said. ‘You must beat them. Strike fast, and when they are on the ground, kick them so they cannot get up.’

‘Holy shit, have you actually done this?’

‘Twice since the World Cup,’ he said. ‘And many before.’

‘Jesus,’ I said.

‘Yes, the soccer really calmed things down.’

A survey was published this week showing that blacks are victims of violence far more than whites. When we think of crime in South Africa, it’s tempting to think of a rich, white majority under siege by the poor, black masses, but it’s much more accurate to think of the whole country as living under house arrest.

I’ve never been to a place where I was so relentlessly encouraged to racially profile. My driver in Johannesburg warned me repeatedly about the ‘gormless Africans’ on the streets and in the shops. Even black people and ‘coloreds’ (that’s what they call mixed-race people here) warned me about this.

But it’s not as simple as saying that everyone is racist. People understand the plight of other racial groups, and the intense injustices under Apartheid are widely known and repented. It’s just that, as soon as the issue of security comes up, all the ‘rainbow nation’ stuff flies out the window.

It’s clear to me now that racial unity, and other lofty, logical principles are only valid as long as nothing is on the line. As soon as you’re in danger of losing your job, or walking down a deserted downtown street, you’re gonna do everything you can to keep yours, and look to members of your tribe for support.


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